TCP/IP Networking

Connecting two processes at TCP/IP level might seem scary at first, but in Go it is easier as one might think.

Psst! I am working on an online Go course! Interested? See here for more.

While preparing another blog post, I realized that the networking part of the code was quickly becoming larger than the part of the code that was meant to illustrate the topic of the post. So I decided to write one blog post entirely about how to send data from process A to process B over a plain TCP/IP connection.

Who needs sending things at TCP/IP level?

Granted, many, if not most, scenarios, undoubtedly do better with a higher-level network protocol that hides all the technical details beneath a fancy API. And there are already plenty to choose from, depending on the needs: Message queue protocols, gRPC, protobuf, FlatBuffers, RESTful Web API’s, WebSockets, and so on.

However, in some situations–especially with small projects–, any approach you choose may look like completely oversized, not to mention the additional package dependencies that you’d have to introduce.

Luckily, creating simple network communication with the standard net package is not as difficult as it may seem.

Simplification #1: connections are io streams

The net.Conn interface implements the io.Reader, io.Writer, and io.Closer interfaces. Hence you can use a TCP connection like any io stream.

I know what you think – “Ok, so I can send strings or byte slices over a TCP connection. That’s nice but what about complex data types? Structs and such?”

Simplification #2: Go knows how to encode complex types efficiently

(Did you also just read “God knows…”? I think it happens to me almost every other time I read this text.)

When it comes to encoding structured data for sending over the net, JSON comes readily to mind. But wait - Go’s standard encoding/gob package provides a way of serializing and deserializing Go data types without the need for adding string tags to structs, dealing with JSON/Go incompatibilities, or waiting for json.Unmarshal to laboriously parse text into binary data.

Gob encoders and decoders work directly on io streams - and this fits just nicely into our simplification #1 - connections are io streams.

Let’s put this all together in a small sample app.

The sample app’s goal

The app shall do two things:

  1. Send and receive a simple message as a string
  2. Send and receive a struct via GOB

The first part–sending simple strings–shall demonstrate how easy it is to send data over a TCP/IP network without any higher-level protocols.

The second part goes a step further and sends a complete struct over the network, with strings, slices, maps, and even a recursive pointer to the struct itself.

Thanks to the gob package, this requires no efforts. The following animation shows how gob data gets from a client to a server, and when this looks quite unspectacular, it’s because using gob is unspectacular.

It’s not much more than that!

Basic ingredients for sending string data over TCP

On the sending side

Sending strings requires three simple steps.

  1. Open a connection to the receiving process
  2. Write the string
  3. Close the connection

The net package provides a couple of methods for this.

ResolveTCPAddr() takes a string representing a TCP address (like, for example, localhost:80,, or [::1]:80, which all represent port #80 on the local machine) and returns a net.TCPAddr (or an error if the string cannot be resolved to a valid TCP address).

DialTCP() takes a net.TCPAddr and connects to this address. It returns the open connection as a net.TCPConn object (or an error if the connection attempt fails).

If we don’t need much fine-grained control over the Dial settings, we can use net.Dial() instead. This function takes an address string directly and returns a general net.Conn object. This is sufficient for our test case; however, if you need functionality that is only available on TCP connections, you have to use the “TCP” variants (DialTCP, TCPConn, TCPAddr, etc).

After successful dialing, we can treat the new connection like any other input/output stream, as mentioned above. We can even wrap the connection into a bufio.ReadWriter and benefit from the various ReadWriter methods like ReadString(), ReadBytes, WriteString, etc.

** Remember that buffered Writers need to call Flush() after writing, so that all data is forwarded to the underlying network connection.**

Finally, each connection object has a Close() method to conclude the communication.

Fine tuning

A couple of tuning options are also available. Some examples:

The Dialer interface provides these options (among others):

  • DeadLine and Timeout options for timing out an unsuccessful dial;
  • a KeepAlive option for managing the life span of the connection

The Conn interface also has deadline settings; either for the connection as a whole (SetDeadLine()) or specific to read or write calls (SetReadDeadLine() and SetWriteDeadLine()).

Note that the deadlines are fixed points in (wallclock) time. Unlike timeouts, they don’t reset after a new activity. Each activity on the connection must therefore set a new deadline.

The sample code below uses no deadlines, as it is simple enough so that we can easily see when things get stuck. Ctrl-C is our manual “deadline trigger tool”.

On the receiving side

The receiver has to follow these steps.

  1. Start listening on a local port.
  2. When a request comes in, spawn a goroutine to handle the request.
  3. In the goroutine, read the data. Optionally, send a response.
  4. Close the connection.

Listening requires a local port to listen to. Typically, the listening application (a.k.a. “server”) announces the port it listens to, or if it provides a standard service, it uses the port associated with that service. For example, Web servers usually listen on port 80 for HTTP requests and on port 443 for HTTPS requests. SSH daemons listen on port 22 by default, and a WHOIS server uses port 43.

The core parts of the net package for implementing the server side are:

net.Listen() creates a new listener on a given local network address. If only a port ist passed, as in “:61000”, then the listener listens on all available network interfaces. This is quite handy, as a computer usually has at least two active interfaces, the loopback interface and at least one real network card.

A listener’s Accept() method waits until a connection request comes in. Then it accepts the request and returns the new connection to the caller. Accept() is typically called within a loop to be able to serve multiple connections simultaneously. Each connection can be handled by a goroutine, as we will see in the code.

The code

Instead of just pushing a few bytes around, I wanted the code to demonstrate something more useful. I want to be able to send different commands with different data payload to the server. The server shall identify each command and decode the command’s data.

So the client in the code below sends two test commands: “STRING” and “GOB”. Each are terminated by a newline.

The STRING command includes one line of string data, which can be handled by simple read and write methods from bufio.

The GOB command comes with a struct that contains a couple of fields, including a slice, a map, and a even a pointer to itself. As you can see when running the code, the gob package moves all this through our network connection without any fuss.

What we basically have here is some sort of ad-hoc protocol, where the client and the server agree that a command is a string followed by a newline followed by some data. For each command, the server must know the exact data format and how to process the data.

To achieve this, the server code takes a two-step approach.

Step 1: When the Listen() function accepts a new connection, it spawns a new goroutine that calls function handleMessage(). This function reads the command name from the connection, looks up the appropriate handler function from a map, and calls this function.

Step 2: The selected handler function reads and processes the command’s data.

Here is a visual summary of this process.

Keep these pictures in mind, they help reading the actual code.

The Code

Imports and globals

package main

import (



A struct with a mix of fields, used for the GOB example.

type complexData struct {
	N int
	S string
	M map[string]int
	P []byte
	C *complexData

const (

Port is the port number that the server listens to.

	Port = ":61000"

Outcoing connections

Using an outgoing connection is a snap. A net.Conn satisfies the io.Reader and io.Writer interfaces, so we can treat a TCP connection just like any other Reader or Writer.

Open connects to a TCP Address. It returns a TCP connection armed with a timeout and wrapped into a buffered ReadWriter.

func Open(addr string) (*bufio.ReadWriter, error) {

Dial the remote process. Note that the local port is chosen on the fly. If the local port must be a specific one, use DialTCP() instead.

	log.Println("Dial " + addr)
	conn, err := net.Dial("tcp", addr)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, errors.Wrap(err, "Dialing "+addr+" failed")
	return bufio.NewReadWriter(bufio.NewReader(conn), bufio.NewWriter(conn)), nil

Incoming connections

Preparing for incoming data is a bit more involved. According to our ad-hoc protocol, we receive the name of a command terminated by \n, followed by data. The nature of the data depends on the respective command. To handle this, we create an Endpoint object with the following properties:

  • It allows to register one or more handler functions, where each can handle a particular command.
  • It dispatches incoming commands to the associated handler based on the commands name.

HandleFunc is a function that handles an incoming command. It receives the open connection wrapped in a ReadWriter interface.

type HandleFunc func(*bufio.ReadWriter)

Endpoint provides an endpoint to other processess that they can send data to.

type Endpoint struct {
	listener net.Listener
	handler  map[string]HandleFunc

Maps are not threadsafe, so we need a mutex to control access.

	m sync.RWMutex

NewEndpoint creates a new endpoint. Too keep things simple, the endpoint listens on a fixed port number.

func NewEndpoint() *Endpoint {

Create a new Endpoint with an empty list of handler funcs.

	return &Endpoint{
		handler: map[string]HandleFunc{},

AddHandleFunc adds a new function for handling incoming data.

func (e *Endpoint) AddHandleFunc(name string, f HandleFunc) {
	e.handler[name] = f

Listen starts listening on the endpoint port on all interfaces. At least one handler function must have been added through AddHandleFunc() before.

func (e *Endpoint) Listen() error {
	var err error
	e.listener, err = net.Listen("tcp", Port)
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Unable to listen on "+e.listener.Addr().String()+"\n")
	log.Println("Listen on", e.listener.Addr().String())
	for {
		log.Println("Accept a connection request.")
		conn, err := e.listener.Accept()
		if err != nil {
			log.Println("Failed accepting a connection request:", err)
		log.Println("Handle incoming messages.")
		go e.handleMessages(conn)

handleMessages reads the connection up to the first newline. Based on this string, it calls the appropriate HandleFunc.

func (e *Endpoint) handleMessages(conn net.Conn) {

Wrap the connection into a buffered reader for easier reading.

	rw := bufio.NewReadWriter(bufio.NewReader(conn), bufio.NewWriter(conn))
	defer conn.Close()

Read from the connection until EOF. Expect a command name as the next input. Call the handler that is registered for this command.

	for {
		log.Print("Receive command '")
		cmd, err := rw.ReadString('\n')
		switch {
		case err == io.EOF:
			log.Println("Reached EOF - close this connection.\n   ---")
		case err != nil:
			log.Println("\nError reading command. Got: '"+cmd+"'\n", err)

Trim the request string - ReadString does not strip any newlines.

		cmd = strings.Trim(cmd, "\n ")
		log.Println(cmd + "'")

Fetch the appropriate handler function from the ‘handler’ map and call it.

		handleCommand, ok := e.handler[cmd]
		if !ok {
			log.Println("Command '" + cmd + "' is not registered.")

Now let’s create two handler functions. The easiest case is where our ad-hoc protocol only sends string data.

The second handler receives and processes a struct that was send as GOB data.

handleStrings handles the “STRING” request.

func handleStrings(rw *bufio.ReadWriter) {

Receive a string.

	log.Print("Receive STRING message:")
	s, err := rw.ReadString('\n')
	if err != nil {
		log.Println("Cannot read from connection.\n", err)
	s = strings.Trim(s, "\n ")
	_, err = rw.WriteString("Thank you.\n")
	if err != nil {
		log.Println("Cannot write to connection.\n", err)
	err = rw.Flush()
	if err != nil {
		log.Println("Flush failed.", err)

handleGob handles the “GOB” request. It decodes the received GOB data into a struct.

func handleGob(rw *bufio.ReadWriter) {
	log.Print("Receive GOB data:")
	var data complexData

Create a decoder that decodes directly into a struct variable.

	dec := gob.NewDecoder(rw)
	err := dec.Decode(&data)
	if err != nil {
		log.Println("Error decoding GOB data:", err)

Print the complexData struct and the nested one, too, to prove that both travelled across the wire.

	log.Printf("Outer complexData struct: \n%#v\n", data)
	log.Printf("Inner complexData struct: \n%#v\n", data.C)

The client and server functions

With all this in place, we can now set up client and server functions.

The client function connects to the server and sends STRING and GOB requests.

The server starts listening for requests and triggers the appropriate handlers.

client is called if the app is called with -connect=ip addr.

func client(ip string) error {

Some test data. Note how GOB even handles maps, slices, and recursive data structures without problems.

	testStruct := complexData{
		N: 23,
		S: "string data",
		M: map[string]int{"one": 1, "two": 2, "three": 3},
		P: []byte("abc"),
		C: &complexData{
			N: 256,
			S: "Recursive structs? Piece of cake!",
			M: map[string]int{"01": 1, "10": 2, "11": 3},

Open a connection to the server.

	rw, err := Open(ip + Port)
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Client: Failed to open connection to "+ip+Port)

Send a STRING request. Send the request name. Send the data.

	log.Println("Send the string request.")
	n, err := rw.WriteString("STRING\n")
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Could not send the STRING request ("+strconv.Itoa(n)+" bytes written)")
	n, err = rw.WriteString("Additional data.\n")
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Could not send additional STRING data ("+strconv.Itoa(n)+" bytes written)")
	log.Println("Flush the buffer.")
	err = rw.Flush()
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Flush failed.")

Read the reply.

	log.Println("Read the reply.")
	response, err := rw.ReadString('\n')
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Client: Failed to read the reply: '"+response+"'")

	log.Println("STRING request: got a response:", response)

Send a GOB request. Create an encoder that directly transmits to rw. Send the request name. Send the GOB.

	log.Println("Send a struct as GOB:")
	log.Printf("Outer complexData struct: \n%#v\n", testStruct)
	log.Printf("Inner complexData struct: \n%#v\n", testStruct.C)
	enc := gob.NewEncoder(rw)
	n, err = rw.WriteString("GOB\n")
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Could not write GOB data ("+strconv.Itoa(n)+" bytes written)")
	err = enc.Encode(testStruct)
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrapf(err, "Encode failed for struct: %#v", testStruct)
	err = rw.Flush()
	if err != nil {
		return errors.Wrap(err, "Flush failed.")
	return nil

server listens for incoming requests and dispatches them to registered handler functions.

func server() error {
	endpoint := NewEndpoint()

Add the handle funcs.

	endpoint.AddHandleFunc("STRING", handleStrings)
	endpoint.AddHandleFunc("GOB", handleGob)

Start listening.

	return endpoint.Listen()


Main starts either a client or a server, depending on whether the connect flag is set. Without the flag, the process starts as a server, listening for incoming requests. With the flag the process starts as a client and connects to the host specified by the flag value.

Try “localhost” or “” when running both processes on the same machine.


func main() {
	connect := flag.String("connect", "", "IP address of process to join. If empty, go into listen mode.")

If the connect flag is set, go into client mode.

	if *connect != "" {
		err := client(*connect)
		if err != nil {
			log.Println("Error:", errors.WithStack(err))
		log.Println("Client done.")

Else go into server mode.

	err := server()
	if err != nil {
		log.Println("Error:", errors.WithStack(err))

	log.Println("Server done.")

The Lshortfile flag includes file name and line number in log messages.

func init() {

How to get and run the code

Step 1: go get the code. Note the -d flag that prevents auto-installing the binary into $GOPATH/bin.

go get -d

Step 2: cd to the source code directory.

cd $GOPATH/src/

Step 3. Run the server.

go run networking.go

Step 4. Open another shell, cd to the source code (see Step 2), and run the client.

go run networking.go -connect localhost


If you want to tinker with the code a bit, here are some suggestions:

  • Try running client and server on different machines (in the same local network).
  • Beef up the complexData type with more maps and pointers and see how gob copes with it.
  • Start several clients at the same time and see if the server can handle them.

This turned into quite a long blog post, so if you are looking for something shorter, here is a blog post that is really just the essence of the above, and it is just sending strings. No gobs, and no fancy “command/data” constructs.

More about the gob package:

Happy coding!


2017-02-09 - Map access: Maps are not thread-safe and thus if a map is used in different goroutines, a mutex should always control access to a map. In the given code, the map is updated before the goroutine starts, so mutexes were not necessary. Nevertheless, I now added one, so you can now safely modify the code and call AddHandleFunc() while the handleMessages goroutine is already running.

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